Henly and Lambert, Single mothers are more depressed and more likely to abuse children, causing worse outcomes for children themselves. Mindful of this qualification, Table 2 describes parent reports of books at home by SES quintile. Correlations can suggest theories of causation for which plausible pathways may be explored. For example, asthmatic children who do not have inhalers are more likely to be awake at night, and come to school more drowsy and inattentive. For each comparison, differences in having personal physicians or nurses are small, but the differences are so consistent across all comparisons that real problems seem evident.
These children will be of school age in the years to come. However, the most important remaining source of lead today is lead-based paints in homes built before , particularly those built before , and lead pipes that carry drinking water from municipal water supplies. But no study controls for all, and few control for very many. Housing instability, the concentration of poverty in segregated neighborhoods, stress, poor nutrition, and asthma are among additional characteristics with strong influence. Children to Residential Dust Lead, —
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David Grissmer, Kevin J. Gwynn, e-mail correspondence with author Rothstein , November 25, Worker productivity could grow because of increased worker experience from longevity, or from employer decisions to invest in training, made cost-effective by higher compensation. Although some educators may use student poverty as an excuse for inadequate performance, the conscientious understand that without good explanations for low achievement, policies to address it are unlikely.
Hill and Diana F. Kogan, and Paul W. Variable schedules prevent parents from enrolling in school themselves, an activity that might enable them to provide better intellectual environments and models of educational aspiration for their children. The disparities are likely greater now, after the weak recovery for lower-income families from the recession, than they were in What follows is a brief summary of policies that, by addressing disadvantages reviewed in this report, might plausibly improve cognitive and non-cognitive child and youth outcomes. Even very low levels of lead contribute to cognitive impairment, including reductions in IQ and verbal and reading ability, with no identifiable safe bottom threshold.
Economic Policy Institute, October 15, , http: Rather, they look to better schools and teachers to close achievement gaps, and consistently come up short. At each stage, children of never-married parents have worse outcomes than children whose parents were married during some of their childhoods and those whose parents were married throughout their childhoods.
Schwartz, David Ribar, and Peter Simon, along with three anonymous reviewers. On each measure, adolescents in single-parent households reported greater emotional and behavioral difficulty, including higher rates of delinquency and illicit drug use. But all have many of them.
Children living with never-married mothers are four times as likely to be in low-income families as children living with both parents. Sixty-nine percent of hourly paid mothers of pre-teens report weekly fluctuations in work hours. By , the share of births that were births to unmarried teenagers had dropped to 6 percent, and it is reasonable to assume that these teenagers too will have some subsequent children as unmarried adults. See more work by Leila Morsy and Richard Rothstein. On each measure, adolescents in single-parent households reported greater emotional and behavioral difficulty, including higher rates of delinquency and illicit drug use. A randomized trial found that by age 15 children whose mothers participated in an NFP program had a 48 percent reduction in abuse and neglect and a 59 percent reduction in arrests.
Richard Rothstein rrothstein epi. The poverty rate not shown in the table for children living with a never-married mother only is 53 percent, with a mother only 45 percent, and with both parents 13 percent. Twenty years later, pregnancies among to year-olds peaked at nearly 60 per 1, teenagers and, shortly afterward, violent crimes peaked at about 7.
Single-parent families move more, partly because mothers may form new relationships that entail moving in with new partners. White adults spend 36 percent more time than black adults reading to young children, and three times more time talking with and listening to them. Children with parents who work non-standard hours are heavier than those whose parents work regular schedules. Lower-class children typically have more unstructured leisure time where they need not follow adult rules, while middle-class children typically have more structured schedules.
- Grannis and Sawhill ;  Howard and Reeves . In , approximately 4 percent of children tested for lead had very dangerous levels of 10 micrograms or higher, but by less than 1 percent had levels that high. Brody, Tamy Hickman, Elaine W. Henly and Susan J. The natural experimental condition that arose from the different rates at which states required lead removal from gasoline reveals correlations, in otherwise observably similar young children and teenagers, between state blood lead levels and lagged non-cognitive outcomes including impulsiveness, inattention and hyperactivity disorder, defiant behavior, delinquency, bullying, lack of temper control, cruelty, drug and alcohol abuse, early sexual activity, and teen pregnancy. NFP leads to improved prenatal health, fewer subsequent pregnancies, increased maternal employment, greater intervals between births for mothers, fewer childhood injuries, and improved school readiness.
- White parents are only two-thirds as likely to be assigned non-daytime shifts as minority parents. Although some educators may use student poverty as an excuse for inadequate performance, the conscientious understand that without good explanations for low achievement, policies to address it are unlikely. The halving of blood lead levels during that period was also associated with a 24 percentage-point decline in the likelihood of teen pregnancy.
Similar correlations exist for murder the most accurately reported crime and in other countries. The halving of blood lead levels during that period was also associated with a 24 percentage-point decline in the likelihood of teen pregnancy. Children with blood lead levels from 5 to 9 have average IQ scores 4.
This analysis does not imply that school improvement cannot improve the outcomes of disadvantaged children, but rather that policies other than school improvement should be given strong consideration, as should the possibility that at least some of these policies may be more powerful levers for raising the achievement of disadvantaged children than the school improvement strategies that policymakers conventionally consider and advocate. The FFCWS also found that children in single-parent families are in consistently worse health—more asthma, obesity, accidents, or injuries—likely contributing to greater school absenteeism, which leads to lower academic performance. For each quintile, parents report more books than the next lower quintile, and whites report twice as many books as blacks. When brains absorb lead instead of calcium, connections essential to executive functions, like control of aggression, develop less adequately.
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After , environmental lead steadily plummeted. Children from the lowest quintile have adult arrest rates 15 percentage points higher and high school completion rates 31 points lower than highest-quintile children. And single-parent households have, on average, substantially less wealth than two-parent households. The halving of blood lead levels during that period was also associated with a 24 percentage-point decline in the likelihood of teen pregnancy.